Figure 2A and 2B show the 10 most commonly used emoji in political communication on Twitter in Germany and United States in our data set. In fact, political parties on the far right of the political spectrum use flag emoji with higher frequency and usually for these parties, tweets with flag emoji are associated with higher engagement. Retrieved February 3, 2020, from, Scissors, L., Burke, M., Wengrovitz, S. (, The right-wing nationalists shaking up Europe . In the United States, it is associated with a slight increase in engagement for Republicans and a slight decrease for Democrats. Even though the differences are small, the results are statistically significant (Mood’s median test; p < .001). This article examines the role of flag emoji in political communication online by analyzing 640,676 tweets by the most important political parties and Members of Parliament in Germany and the United States. Flag emoji have increased the accessibility of the national flag in online communication and since flags have varying effects on people with different political views, some political parties may benefit more from increased accessibility than others. Andreas Jungherr is an assistant professor at the Department of Politics and Public Administration at the University of Konstanz. Sorted from left to right of the political spectrum, these parties are Linke (The Left), Grüne (Alliance 90/The Greens), Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), FDP, coalition of Christian Democratic Union of Germany and Christian Social Union of Germany (CDU/CSU), and AfD. For each political party, we looked at the party’s official Twitter accounts at the national and state level and the Twitter accounts of the members of the 18th and 19th Bundestag in Germany and members of the House of Representatives of 115th and 116th U.S. Congress. Attitudes and behaviors around receiving Likes on Facebook, Extending and broadening Blumer’s conceptualization of symbolic interactionism. In our data set, the favorites (sometimes referred to as likes) and retweets are highly correlated with a Pearson correlation coefficient of .95 for Germany and .89 for United States. Additionally, as noted above, national flags act as symbols of common identity and can send cues to audience members. They show that such representations are useful for the downstream task like sentiment analysis. In case of CDU/CSU, we see the flag used in the similar context along with words related to economic and social issues (bauen, belohnt, kostengünstiger, and Schutzbedürftige). Table 3. I have read and accept the terms and conditions, View permissions information for this article. We used the word2vec implementation in Gensim (Mikolov, Chen, et al., 2013; Rehurek & Sojka, 2010). As off-line, flag emoji usage in online communication is associated with external events of national importance. Let those who fought for your country not to have done so in vain by using some of these Memorial Day animated emoticons.Whether it’s to remember someone who was close to you or to pay your respects to those servicemen and women who defending your country, these Memorial Day animated emoticons will certainly shine. To limit confounding factors, we measure the relative change in engagement within a political party and only compare these relative changes among the parties. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. , Today it would be possible to watch the movie about war, but I don’t want to cry… .
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